Criteria for Low-Score Subjective Paranormal Experience

These criteria have been used in Neppe's research in the area of SPEs.

Low-score SPEs imply SPEs which conform to specific subjective criteria. Thus it is a lower score overall than High-score SPEs which just require the experient to subjectively perceive the specific experience as of paranormal kind.

  1. Veridical Dreams: not symbolic, not intuitive, plus alleged awareness of content of dream prior to knowing of its occurrence in reality.
  2. Simultaneous Dreams: allegedly reflects directly in many details a dream another person had, plus claimed confirmation with that person.
  3. General ESP: non-symbolic, not intuitive, claimed awareness of content prior to knowing of the occurrence in reality.
  4. Mediumship: trance state with loss of consciousness, claimed by subject that he obtained information that was regarded by sitters as evidential in a factual, non-symbolic sense.
  5. Presences: clear visualization with descriptive details as opposed to just 'sensing' or being aware or just an unclear distortion.
  6. Out-of-body Experiences: feeling completely outside one's body, seeing one's own body or obtaining information about physical events or places.
  7. Psychokinesis: definite claims to have manipulated, moved or levitated physical objects, in which the change was allegedly visualized or confirmed by the subject or another person.
  8. Paranormal Auras: spontaneous (non-induced), visualization as opposed to 'sensing' or otherwise detecting.
  9. Paranormal Healing: specific claims of definite success in individual cases.
  10. Xenoglossy: Speaking in Foreign Tongues: absence of knowledge of a recognized language that is allegedly spoken at the rate of normal conversation, and allegedly involves someone who has authenticated the conversation.
  11. Ectoplasmic Materialization: definite claims to have produced physical substances, recognizable as people during trance, with the alleged authentication by others present.
  12. Reincarnation Memories: definite claims to have a certain knowledge about non-important people or events acquired through alleged memories or previous lives, occurring at a young age (less than five years).
  13. Agent to ESP: the alleged awareness of others of certain facts about the subject when the subject claimed to be in a crisis or actively trying to communicate.
  14. Automatic writing: the alleged production of interpretable, legible information, with either hand, while undertaking other tasks.

© Copyright 1997 Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute.