Examples of interpretation of scoring
of BROCAS SCAN scores in normals (Nl) and closed head
injured patients (HI).
Memory as reflected by recall and
The patient did not perseverate.
Mild verbal but no obvious visual difficulties
were present on spontaneous recall or cued recognition.
Recall and recognition are inappropriate
for age and intelligence
Normal recall / recognition implies
adequate eventual registration (measured, in part,
more acutely by concentration) and retention of information.
In this instance, impaired recall with
reasonable recognition may imply difficulty with organizing
Orientation for time, space and passage
of time was within normal limits.
(Passage of time is selectively impaired
in certain psychoses; spatial impairment may imply
Organization as reflected by abstraction
of proverbs and ability to coherently put elements
together appears within normal limits taking cultural
elements into account.
The measure in this instance unfortunately
has more cultural elements than any other part of
Communication skills were unimpaired.
Concentration: The patient was able
to concentrate but only poorly and outside normal
Calculation: Simple calculation skills
as measured by subtraction appear appropriate for
the overall profile. (Calculation difficulties may
reflect specific impairments including pre-existing
learning difficulties and focal impairments of either
parietal or frontal lobe or generalized concentration
Praxic skills pertaining, inter alia,
to copying, construction and sequential movements
scored at the upper limits of normal. (Many normal
people have significant difficulties with tests of
complex sequences. Separation of the motor impairment
from the perceptual gnosic difficulties is at times
very difficult clinically.)
Gnosic elements testing both perceptual
modality (auditory, visual, tactile) and organization
of information is within normal limits. (The test
involves relatively simple tasks so abnormality reflects
significant pathology or limited attention to detail.)
Speech pronunciation was normal
Comprehension of complex English phrases
Naming of body parts, colors and objects
appear within normal limits.
Speech generation as reflected by spontaneous
word generation using stipulated criteria was normal.
(Tests broadly cover the spectrum of receptive and
Sensory-motor-reflex elements: No evidence
for impaired gait or posturing,
The patient has no obvious motor weakness
in the upper limbs with nor arm sway and no flexor-extensor
weakness and the lower limb strength appears adequate.
Motor tone appears adequate.
No tremor occurs on either side either
at rest or on writing.
No obvious sensory loss exists.
No primitive reflexes were demonstrated
by this test.
Because broad elements only are
tested this is no substitute for a detailed neurologic