NEUROPSYCHIATRY and BEHAVIORAL NEUROLOGY | PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY
FORENSICS | RESEARCH | CONSCIOUSNESS | PHILOSOPHY | BOOKS | LITERATURE
PERSPECTIVES | CLINICAL | DÉJÀ VU | INTERESTING AREAS | ETHICS | CONTACT

KEY ARTICLES: CONSCIOUSNESS | DOUBLE BLIND | HEAD INJURY | NARCOLEPSY | PAROXYSMAL DISORDERS | PRESCRIPTION PRINCIPLES | TARDIVE DYSKINESIA

Enduring Interest: Generic Substitution | Genius | Groundbreaking Paradigm Shifts | Zmail

TABLE B

Examples of interpretation of scoring of BROCAS SCAN scores in normals (Nl) and closed head injured patients (HI).

Memory as reflected by recall and retention:

The patient did not perseverate.

Mild verbal but no obvious visual difficulties were present on spontaneous recall or cued recognition.

Recall and recognition are inappropriate for age and intelligence

Normal recall / recognition implies adequate eventual registration (measured, in part, more acutely by concentration) and retention of information.

In this instance, impaired recall with reasonable recognition may imply difficulty with organizing retained information.

Orientation for time, space and passage of time was within normal limits.

(Passage of time is selectively impaired in certain psychoses; spatial impairment may imply organicity)

Organization as reflected by abstraction of proverbs and ability to coherently put elements together appears within normal limits taking cultural elements into account.

The measure in this instance unfortunately has more cultural elements than any other part of this test.

Communication skills were unimpaired.

Concentration: The patient was able to concentrate but only poorly and outside normal limits.

Calculation: Simple calculation skills as measured by subtraction appear appropriate for the overall profile. (Calculation difficulties may reflect specific impairments including pre-existing learning difficulties and focal impairments of either parietal or frontal lobe or generalized concentration disturbance)

Praxic skills pertaining, inter alia, to copying, construction and sequential movements scored at the upper limits of normal. (Many normal people have significant difficulties with tests of complex sequences. Separation of the motor impairment from the perceptual gnosic difficulties is at times very difficult clinically.)

Gnosic elements testing both perceptual modality (auditory, visual, tactile) and organization of information is within normal limits. (The test involves relatively simple tasks so abnormality reflects significant pathology or limited attention to detail.)

Speech pronunciation was normal

Comprehension of complex English phrases was appropriate.

Naming of body parts, colors and objects appear within normal limits.

Speech generation as reflected by spontaneous word generation using stipulated criteria was normal. (Tests broadly cover the spectrum of receptive and expressive speech.)

Sensory-motor-reflex elements: No evidence for impaired gait or posturing,

The patient has no obvious motor weakness in the upper limbs with nor arm sway and no flexor-extensor weakness and the lower limb strength appears adequate.

Motor tone appears adequate.

No tremor occurs on either side either at rest or on writing.

No obvious sensory loss exists.

No primitive reflexes were demonstrated by this test.

Because broad elements only are tested this is no substitute for a detailed neurologic examination.

 

 


Copyright ©1997-2003 Pacific Neuropsychiatric Institute